AR 7-2-1 / Backward Pass
I. 2 & middle at Os 3-yd line. The quarterback throws a backward pass from inside their own end
zone out of bounds to avoid a sack.
RULING: No foul, but it is a safety. The ball belongs to the offense at the spot of the last
possession which is in the end zone.
NOTE: It is also a safety if this backward pass or fumble falls incomplete in the end zone.
II. 2 & middle at Os 3-yd line. The quarterback throws a backward pass from the 1-yd line out of
bounds or to the ground in the end zone to avoid a sack.
RULING: No safety, no foul. Next play 3 & middle at the 1-yd line.
NOTE: On an incomplete forward pass it would be a similar ruling. Next play 3 & middle at the 3-yd line.
III. 2 & middle at Os 3-yd line. The ball is snapped over the head of the quarterback and falls
incomplete in the end zone or out of bounds.
RULING: No safety. Next play 3 & middle at Os 3-yd line.
IV. 4 & goal at Ds 3-yd line. The ball is snapped high and the quarterback bats the ball forward to
avoid an incomplete pass and the end of the series. The snapper is able to catches the ball
and advances into the end zone.
RULING: Foul for illegal batting by offense (R 7-2-5-c), no score, series ends by loss of down.